http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_the_Atlantic A Batalha do Atlântico (1939 – 1945), foi a mais longa campanha da Segunda Guerra Mundial e foi responsável pelo naufrágio de 3500 navios cargueiros aliados, 175 navios de guerra aliados, 119 porta-aviões de escolta aliados e 783 submarinos alemães. The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign of World War II, (though some say it was a series of naval military campaigns and offensives) running from 1939 through the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, and was at its height from mid-1940 through to the end of 1943. The Battle of the Atlantic pitted U-boats and other warships of the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) against Allied convoys. The convoys, coming mainly from North America and the South Atlantic and going to the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, were protected for the most part by the British and Canadian navies and air forces. These forces were aided by ships and aircraft of the United States from 13 September 1941. The Germans were joined by submarines of the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina) after Italy entered the war on 10 June 1940. The name "Battle of the Atlantic", first coined by Winston Churchill in 1941, is a partial misnomer for a campaign that began on the first day of the European war and lasted for six years, involved thousands of ships and stretched over hundreds of miles of the vast ocean and seas in a succession of more than 100 convoy battles and perhaps 1,000 single-ship encounters. Tactical advantage switched back and forth over the six years as new weapons, tactics and counter-measures were developed by both sides. The British and their allies gradually gained the upper hand, driving the German surface raiders from the ocean by the middle of 1941 and decisively defeating the U-boats in a series of convoy battles between March and May 1943. New German submarines arrived in 1945, but they were too late to affect the course of the war. Arctic convoys of World War II The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United Kingdom and the United States to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. There were 78 convoys between August 1941 and May 1945 (although there were two gaps with no sailings between July and September 1942, and March and November 1943). About 1400 merchant ships delivered vital supplies to the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease program. 85 merchant vessels and 16 Royal Navy warships (2 cruisers, 6 destroyers, 8 other escort ships) were lost. The Germans lost a number of vessels including one battlecruiser, three destroyers and at least 30 U-boats as well as a large number of aircraft. Navios Produzidos na Segunda Guerra Mundial Aircraft carriers United States = 22 (141) Japan = 16 United Kingdom = 14 Germany = 2 Figures in parentheses indicate merchant vessels converted to carry airplanes. Battleships United States = 8 United Kingdom = 5 Italy = 3 Japan = 2 Germany = 2 Cruisers United States = 48 United Kingdom = 32 Japan = 9 Italy = 6 Soviet Union = 2 Destroyers United States = 349 United Kingdom = 240 Japan = 63 Soviet Union = 25 Germany = 17 Italy = 6 Convoy escorts United States = 498 United Kingdom = 413 Canada = 191 Germany = 23 Submarines Germany = 1,337 United States = 422 Japan = 167 United Kingdom = 167 Soviet Union = 52 Italy = 28 Merchant tonnage United States = 33,993,230 United Kingdom = 6,378,899 Japan = 4,152,361 Commonwealth = 2,702,943 Italy = 469,606 Historical plaque at the Bedford Basin in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, a major convoy collection area. Officers on the bridge of an escorting British destroyer keep a sharp look out for enemy submarines, October 1941 A U-boat shells a merchant ship which has remained afloat after being torpedoed A SB2U Vindicator scout bomber from USS Ranger (CV-4) flies anti-submarine patrol over Convoy WS-12, en route to Cape Town, 27 November 1941. The convoy was one of many escorted by the US Navy before the US entered the war A depth charge being loaded onto a depth-charge thrower aboard the corvette HMS Dianthus, 14 August 1942. An Allied Casablanca convoy heads eastward across the Atlantic bound for Africa, November 1942 Hedgehog, a 24 barrelled anti-submarine mortar, mounted on the forecastle of the destroyer HMS Westcott A Leigh Light used for spotting U-boats on the surface at night fitted to a Liberator aircraft of Royal Air Force Coastal Command, February 26, 1944 A U-Boat under attack by Allied aircraft in 1943 Newfoundland seamen raise White Ensign over a captured German U-boat in St. John's, Newfoundland Coast Guardsmen on the deck of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter SPENCER watch the explosion of a depth charge which blasted a Nazi U-boats hope of breaking into the center of a large convoy. Sinking of U-175. NA 1943/04/17 Allied tanker Dixie Arrow torpedoed by a German submarine U-71 in 1942. U-boat 534, Birkenhead Docks, Merseyside, England Submarine base of Saint-Nazaire. It holds today a museum and some commercial activities.